The dating of the quran
The suras of the period are: 54, 37, 71, 76, 44, 50, 20, 26, 15, 19, 38, 36, 43, 72, 67, 23, 21, 25, 17, 27, 18.In the Third Meccan Period the use of ar rahman ar-Ramn as a proper name ceases, but other characteristics of the second period are intensified.Sura 96 begins with 'recite', and this is appropriate for a book which is called 'the recitation' or quran Qurn; and sura 74 after addressing muhammad Muammad has the words 'rise and warn'-an appropriate beginning to the work of a messenger or warner.Despite these deficiencies the traditional dating of passages by Muslim scholars is by no means valueless, and indeed forms the basis of all future work.The prophetic stories are frequently repeated with slight variations of emphasis.
The suras of this period, in the order assigned to them by Nldeke are: 96, 74, 111, 106, 108, 104, 107, 102, 105, 92, 90, 94, 93, 97, 86, 91, 80, 68, 87, 95, 103, 85, 73, 101, 99, 82, 81, 53, 84, 100, 79, 77, 78, 88, 89, 75, 83, 69, 51, 52, 56, 70, 55, 112, 109, 113, 114, 1.Several nineteenth-century scholars made useful contributions to the study of quranic Qurnic chronology; but the most important book by far was Theodor Nldeke's Geschichte des quran qorans Qorns, first published in 1860.1 A second edition, revised and enlarged by Friedrich Schwally and others, appeared in three volumes in 1909, 19, and was reprinted by a photocopying process in 1961.On this basis they came to classify the suras as 'Meccan' or 'Medinan', and this description was included in the heading of each sura in the later copies.They were also aware, however, of instances where a few verses had to be classified differently from the rest of the sura. Thus in the official Egyptian edition the heading of sura 73 reads: 'The sura of Al-muzzammil, Meccan except verses 10, 11 and 20, which are Medinan; its verses are 20; it was revealed after Al-qalam.' The last statement is part of the attempt to arrange all the suras according to the order in which the main part of each was revealed.
In respect of chronology Nldeke assumed a progressive change of style from exalted poetical passages in the early years to long prosaic deliverances later.