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Legal positivism emphasizes law's political dimension. Legal positivism recognizes political rulers as the only source of valid law and adopts the will of the political ruler as its validity standard. Natural law theory recognizes universal moral principles as the primary source of valid law.Leading legal positivists include Jeremy Bentham, John Austin, and H. These moral principles provide a standard of legal validity that imposes moral limits on the ruler's coercive powers.Abuses of coercive powers by political rulers eventually stimulate renewed restrictions on those powers. In civil law jurisprudence, Soviet and Nazi abuses of positivist legal systems revived validity standards based on moral principles.The society adopts a revived standard of legal validity based on moral principles, custom, or both. This essay describes the cycle of legal validity in Western law and proposes a fresh approach to legal validity to break this cycle. Hesiod presents an archetypal jurisprudence that integrates law's three dimensions.Class B misdemeanor if a person commits assault against someone who is a sports participant during a performance or in retaliation for a performance.Class A misdemeanor if a person causes bodily injury to another, and no other aggravating factors are present; or if a person causes physical contact in a provocative or offensive way against an elderly individual.3rd degree felony if act committed against: A person the actor knows is a public servant while the public servant is lawfully discharging an official duty, or in retaliation or on account of an exercise of official power or performance of an official duty as a public servant; A family member, member of the household, or dating relationship if defendant has been previously convicted of a similar offense, or if the offense was committed by intentionally or recklessly choking the victim; Offense is committed by intentionally, knowingly, or recklessly impeding the normal breathing or circulation of the blood of the person by applying pressure to the person's throat or neck or by blocking the person's nose or mouth (choking).Arrested for Violating Texas Assault and Battery Laws?
The historicist school emphasizes law's historical dimension.
Leading historicists include Sir Edward Coke, John Selden, Sir Matthew Hale, and Sir William Blackstone.
Legal positivism recognizes positive law as the only real law and rejects law's moral and historical dimensions as sources of valid laws.
Natural law theory and the historicist school, on the other hand, often integrate law's three dimensions.
They recognize each dimension as a potential source of valid law but emphasize a particular dimension through their validity standard.
Then, intellectual challenges to moral principles and legal custom minimize their esteem.